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GRE阅读真题「TD包你懂」系列解析之Passage 13 ||GRE干货
今日推荐:2021年01月10日 TD GRE教研组 TD北美留学进化论


市面上流传的GRE阅读机经真题有三百多篇,同时又存在多种版本的答案和解析,有些疑难题目让考生不知道听谁的,还有些版本的解析像是用谷歌翻译把同题目和选项翻译了一下。TD GRE教研组认为,GRE阅读的解析,可以讲得再清楚一点。


GRE不光有技巧,不光有快速解题法,GRE更加考察大家的逻辑硬实力,文字理解实打实的深度。良好的GRE备考应当在课堂上向老师学习快速解题法,取同取反逻辑的同时,课下扎扎实实的读懂每一句话读懂,是一切技巧使用的前提。皮之不存,毛将焉附?


有感于此,我们尝试用比较长的时间,原创一个解析,力求做到超详细,大白话,包你懂。之前为大家推送了Passage 1 - Passage 12的解析,今天继续为大家推出Passage 13的解析,这篇阅读一共有5句话,带2道题,TD版超详细「包你懂」系列对此篇文章进行了清楚地解析。


Passage 13

 

Biologists have long debated about whether egg production in birds is biologically highly costly, some theorizing that egg production is energetically or nutritionally demanding. Lack, however, suggested that clutch size—the number of eggs a bird lays per breeding cycle—is far below the potential limit of egg production. He suggested that clutch size had instead evolved in relation to the number of young that the parents could successfully rear. Subsequently, most studies focused on limitations operating during chick rearing, particularly among altricial species (species in which the parents feed their young in the nest). Lack later recognized that in precocial species (species in which young feed themselves), clutch size might be explained by different factors—the availability of food for egg-laying females, for example.




文章解析


 

第一句话:

Biologists have long debated about whether egg production in birds is biologically highly costly, some theorizing that egg production is energetically or nutritionally demanding.


白话版讲解:


生物学家们一直在争辩一个问题。从生物学的角度看,下蛋这件事本身对下蛋的鸟来说,是不是一件很耗费体能和营养的事?一些生物学家认为,是。(潜台词,另一些生物学家认为,不是。)



第二句话:

Lack, however, suggested that clutch size—the number of eggs a bird lays per breeding cycle—is far below the potential limit of egg production.


白话版讲解:


However,有一个名字叫Lack的生物学家,暗示说鸟每下一波蛋的蛋的个数,远远低于(没达到)鸟的能力的上限。



第三句话:

He suggested that clutch size had instead evolved in relation to the number of young that the parents could successfully rear.


白话版讲解:


Lack暗示,鸟每下一波蛋下几只,不是由鸟下蛋的能力决定,而是由蛋下出来以后,鸟爸爸鸟妈妈能成功养大几只小鸟来决定的。




前面三句话看完,我们小结一下:


一些生物学家认为,下蛋这件事本身对下蛋的鸟来说,是一件很耗费体能和营养的事。所以假如一只鸟下一波蛋下了6个,是因为她从食物中摄取的营养和体能只允许她下6个蛋,想下第7个蛋也没那个体力了。


另一些生物学家认为,下蛋这件事本身对下蛋的鸟来说,不是一件很耗费体能和营养的事。所以假如一只鸟下一波蛋下了6个,不是因为她从食物中摄取的营养和体能只允许她下6个,她的体力还可以下第7个第8个,但是她和老公养不活7只8只小鸟,只能养得活6只,所以就只下6个蛋。


Lack属于“另一些生物学家”。


第四句话:

Subsequently, most studies focused on limitations operating during chick rearing, particularly among altricial species (species in which the parents feed their young in the nest).


白话版讲解:


(Lack提出以上理论以后,大部分生物学家觉得有道理,就相信他了)。所以此后的大部分研究就主要以鸟蛋孵化以后鸟爸爸鸟妈妈抚养雏鸟那一阶段起作用(operating)的一些限制条件为研究对象了。(而不是以鸟妈妈怀孕时起作用的一些限制条件为研究对象)。对altricial这一类鸟尤其是如此。



第五句话:

Lack later recognized that in precocial species (species in which young feed themselves), clutch size might be explained by different factors—the availability of food for egg-laying females, for example.

白话版讲解:


(不过啊),后来Lack也承认,对precocial这一类鸟,鸟每下一波蛋下几个,是由(其他)一些因素决定的(而不是由“鸟爸爸鸟妈妈能成功养大几只小鸟”这个因素来来决定)。比如要下单的雌鸟能找到多少食物(即文章开头提到的那种理论。)


这里Lack是在修正自己的理论,或者说在qualify自己的理论。因为文章中说了,precocial这一类鸟,小鸟是不需要父母抚养的,Lack的理论对precocial这一类鸟显然说不通。请注意different factors不要翻译成“几个不同的因素”,一个factor和另一个factor,当然是不同的,这里的different是指其他几个factors,和Lack先前说的那个factor,不同。




题目解析


1. The passage suggests that biologists who say egg production in birds is biologically highly costly would agree that clutch size is determined primarily by


A. the nutritional and energy demands of egg production


B. the number of young that the parents can rear successfully


C. reproductive limitations operating during chick rearing


D. the availability of food for newly hatched chicks


E. the differences between altricial and precocial species


点击空白处查看答案




白话版讲解:


根据文章,altricial和precocial 两类鸟的区别体现在小鸟需不要鸟爸爸鸟妈妈喂吃的,那是鸟蛋孵化以后的事。B、C、D讲的也都是鸟蛋孵化以后的事, 第一种理论讲的是雌鸟怀孕时期的事(怀孕时营养够不够)。这道题问的是第一种理论。所以A选项正确。


Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.


2. The passage suggests that Lack would agree with which of the following statements about factors affecting clutch size in birds?


A. In altricial species, clutch size is determined primarily by factors operating after eggs are laid.


B. In precocial species, clutch size is determined primarily by factors operating after eggs are laid.


C. In many bird species, clutch size generally remains well below the potential limit of egg production.



点击空白处查看答案



白话版讲解:


因为对precocial这一类鸟,文章第五句话只说了“different factors”,没有说primarily是哪些,所以B选项错误。根据文章第二、三、四句话,选项A和C正确。



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